For the separate VLAN routing network. Each VLAN has a port connected to the router. This means that the router has multiple LAN side ports. In the simplest scenario, there is one port/connection dedicated to the voice VLAN and another port/connection dedicated to the data VLAN.
Separate VLAN Routing network
This means that you must have a switch with VLAN capabilities. The switch's ports must be assigned to a voice or data VLAN. Each VLAN is assigned to a network with a unique network address.
The router must have multiple LAN ports AND each port must be configured to a separate network. Each port is assigned a network address that becomes the Default Gateway for that network. Also each router port should be able to act as a DHCP server for its unique network.
Enterprise class routers have these capabilities and are provided by a host of companies like Cisco, 3Com, Juniper, HP, etc.. The catch is that they are expensive and typically out of reach for a home network or even a SOHO's budget. They typically require an expert level of knowledge to configure that usually requires training of some sort.
A lot of routers can provide traffic management for VoIP protocols and QoS through their web based GUI or command line interface. The traffic management typically deals with outbound traffic. Priority can be given to voice protocols like SIP or to the voice VLAN. The router recognizes the voice traffic and when given the choice between sending out data or voice, it will send the voice first. Each router is different and its capabilities would need to be explored to see how it can manage traffic.
Most home broadband routers have a built-in 4 or 8 port switch that when taken "right out of the box" will not have the capabilities to separate the LAN ports into individual networks that would fit the requirements of the Separate VLAN Routing Network.
Aftermarket Router Firmware
There are several aftermarket router firmware upgrades that are both free open source and paid upgrades that can add more capabilities to your router. The result is that your el-cheapo router gets a hit of steroids and provides features normally seen only on expensive enterprise class routers. One of these is DD-WRT which allows you to VLAN the internal switch, assign each port to a VLAN and create individual DHCP servers for each VLAN. Unfortunately, aftermarket router firmware upgrades require a level of expertise and patience to get working correctly.
The advantages to a Separate VLAN Routing Network are
The disadvantages to a Separate VLAN Routing Network are:
Note: Soft IP phones that run as apps on the PC ,such as the Xlite softphone, still reside on the data LAN and will have quality issues as their traffic will be fighting with the data traffic for bandwidth.
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