Signal Errors

Crosstalk

Crosstalk is when one line induces a signal into another line. In voice communications, we often hear this as another conversation going on in the background. In digital communication, this can cause severe disruption of the data transfer. Cross talk can be caused by overlapping of bands in a multiplexed system or by poor shielding of cables running close to one another. There are no specific communications standards applied to the measurement of crosstalk.

Echo or Signal Return

All media have a preferred termination condition for perfect transfer of signal power. The signal arriving at the end of a transmission line should be fully absorbed otherwise it will be reflected back down the line to the sender and appear as an Echo. Echo Suppressors are often fitted to transmission lines to reduce this effect.

Normally during data transmission, these suppressors must be disabled or they will prevent return communication in full duplex mode. Echo suppressors are disabled on the phone line if they hear carrier for 400ms or more. If the carrier is absent for 100 mSec, the echo suppressor is re-enabled.

Echo Cancellers are currently used in Modems to replicate the echo path response and then combine the results to eliminate the echo. Thus no signal interruption is necessary.

Frequency Shift

Frequency shift is the difference between the transmitted frequency and the received frequency. This is caused by the lack of synchronization of the carrier oscillators.

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TelecomWorld 101

Copyright July 2013 Eugene Blanchard